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Conclusion examples with explanations

Conclusion example 1 (long Conclusion)

[restating the aim of the study in one sentence:] This research scrutinized the effectiveness of game-based learning on Iranian EFL students’ motivation and anxiety. [summarizing findings and their value:] As stated previously, the results showed that using game-based learning was an effective strategy to increase and decrease Iranian EFL learners’ motivation and anxiety, respectively. Based on the promising results, the implementation of different types of instructional games is strongly recommended in Iranian EFL contexts. Educational games are significant for teaching English since they can provide EFL learners with an amusing and funny learning situation that can contribute to better English learning. In conclusion, using games is vitally important in language teaching and learning since games have the potential to provide a relaxed setting for EFL students and teachers.

[highlighting general implications:] The promising and positive results of this research bring about some implications for EFL teachers, learners, researchers, and material developers. Using games is an effective strategy that can motivate learners to develop their English skills and subskills in a more student-centered learning setting. Games are effective instruments for EFL students to learn English with more fun and amusement. In addition, instructional games permit learners to learn English via their mobile devices in different places, and at any time, they like.

[highlighting implications for researchers:] The findings of this research can aid researchers to extend game-based learning studies to other skills and subskills of the English language. [highlighting implications for practitioners:] The results can help English teachers utilize different instructional games as a supplement to other instructional materials in their teaching process. The findings recommend that instructors can use the games along with other visual and audio educational materials to improve L2 learning. In this way, teachers can help their students participate actively in the learning process. Additionally, teachers can use games in order to provide a more entertaining, relaxing, and pleasant situation for the students to reduce their anxiety and stress. Teachers can use games to persuade students to work cooperatively and subject them to interactive and cooperative learning.

[highlighting implications for practitioners: material developers:] The results of this survey can have an implication for the material developers who design courses and prepare educational materials for EFL students. Based on the obtained results, it is suggested that syllabus developers, material writers, and course designers pay more attention to the roles of game-based tasks and activities in L2 teaching/learning and improve corresponding curriculums and materials.

[stressing a limitation of the study:] The current empirical research is affected by some unavoidable limitations. The main limitation of this study is referred to its small size participants that was limited only to 58 Iranian EFL learners. [recommendation for future research based on this limitation:] Next, researchers can select more participants to validate the effectiveness of the game-based learning on learning different kinds of English language skills and subskills. [stressing a second limitation:] The other main drawback of the current research is the participants’ age range that was between 18 and 33 years old. [recommendation for future research based on second limitation:] Therefore, the gained results should be generalized to other age groups cautiously. [stressing third limitation:] One more limitation is that only quantitative data were collected to answer the research questions; [recommendation for future research based on third limitation:] in order to boost the validity and reliability of the results, other researchers are recommended to gather both quantitative and qualitative data. [stressing final limitation:] The other limitation of the study refers to the time of the treatment that lasted only two months; [recommendation for future research based on final limitation:] other researchers are offered to expand the treatment time to help the quality of their studies.


This conclusion contains five paragraphs in total, which is on the longer side of the average. All the usual elements of a Conclusion section are included, and it does not read as simply a summary of the whole article.

  • It begins with restating the research question in just one sentence.
  • It then summarizes the main findings, which are the increase in Iranian EFL learners’ motivation and decrease in their anxiety afforded by game-based learning. The value and usefulness of the study, and of game-based learning itself, are emphasized (note the use of words/phrases like ‘significant’ and ‘vitally important’, and positive language such as ‘promising results’ and ‘amusing and funny learning situation’).
  • The authors move on to highlighting the implications of their study. This is done first in general terms (paragraph 2), then more specifically for each audience concerned (researchers, teachers, and material developers; paragraphs 3 and 4). Direct recommendations are made to the practitioners (e.g. ‘The findings recommend that instructors can use the games along with other visual and audio educational materials to improve L2 learning.’).
  • In the last paragraph, the authors cleverly intertwine four limitations of their study with directions for future research. Each limitation serves to point to a recommendation, offering anyone who may be interested in replicating the study guidance on where to start.

Conclusion example 2 (short Conclusion)

[restating the research problem and associated knowledge gap:] The human skin undergoes the complex process of aging. Skin aging is unavoidable but can be delayed. ADSCs as potential antiaging agents are being widely studied. However, because of insufficient evidence on safety and efficacy, the use of stem cells in antiaging was limited. [summarizing findings while highlighting their value:] Encouragingly, our results have revealed the antisenescence effects of ADSC-Exos on HDFs. Compared with ADSCs, ADSC-Exos have several advantages: being more stably preserved, lower tumorigenicity, and lower immunogenicity. [highlighting implications for clinical practice:] Thus, ADSC-Exos may be a novel cell-free therapeutic tool for antiaging. [recommendation for future research:] Of course, more research is needed to demonstrate the therapeutic potential of ADSC-Exos.


This conclusion is very short, and perhaps more typical of scientific papers (often bound by low word counts) than the previous. Yet in just one paragraph, the authors manage to include all the necessary parts of a Conclusion.

  • The research problem is laid out at the beginning.
  • This is followed by the main findings. Note the use of positive words such as ‘encouragingly’ and ‘advantages’ to emphasize the value of the results.
  • Implications for clinical practice are then summed up in one sentence. Note the adjective ‘novel’ in ‘novel cell-free therapeutic tool’, to stress the originality of the outcome. The verb ‘may’, on the other hand, ensures that the tone stays humble and cautious.
  • In the final sentence, the authors call for more research to be carried out.Note that there is no mention of limitations, but this isn’t uncommon in very short papers.


Conclusion example 1: Alim Al Ayub Ahmed, Evy Segarawati Ampry, Aan Komariah, Isyaku Hassan, Irmawati Thahir, Muneam Hussein Ali, Athraa Fawzi Faisal, Pardis Zafarani, "Investigating the Effect of Using Game-Based Learning on EFL Learners’ Motivation and Anxiety", Education Research International, vol. 2022, Article ID 6503139, 9 pages, 2022.

Conclusion example 2: Ji-An Guo, Pi-Jun Yu, Dong-Qin Yang, Wei Chen, "The Antisenescence Effect of Exosomes from Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Skin Fibroblasts", BioMed Research International, vol. 2022, Article ID 1034316, 12 pages, 2022.

Structuring your Conclusion

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