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Abstract examples with explanations

Abstract example 1

[background:] At present, China’s industrial economy is facing a severe problem of green transformation, so the measurement of total-factor green efficiency has become one of the research hot spots. [aim:] Combining Shephard’s distance function and metafrontier model, this study constructs a parametric total-factor green efficiency model in consideration of technology heterogeneity. [methods:] Stochastic metafrontier analysis, which controls individual effects, is used to estimate metafrontier green efficiency. This study calculates the green efficiency of Chinese industrial sectors. [results:] Results show that there are significant differences in metafrontier green efficiency between high- and low-emission groups, and the efficiency level of the low-emission group is systematically higher than that of the high-emission group. Compared with pooled green efficiency and existing studies without considering technology heterogeneity, the metafrontier green efficiency is more intuitive and realistic. [meaning of results:] In order to achieve green industrial growth, this study suggests that the government should implement heterogeneous energy conservation and emission reduction policies for high- and low-emission groups, especially to encourage carbon-intensive industries to improve the use of existing group technologies, and to promote technology diffusion and spillover between high- and low-emission groups. [future:] Based on the reliable measurement of green efficiency, green productivity might be reliably explored as well in the future.


  • The above abstract first gives background information: It states what problem the current study investigates (green transformation), and that it has received much research attention.
  • It then introduces the aim of the study, which is to construct a model, followed by the methods used - the type of analysis carried out.
  • Next, the author discusses the most important results (significant differences between the two compared groups) and how those compare to existing studies.
  • The author then explains what these results mean (that the government should take certain steps).
  • The last sentence of the abstract refers to the reliability of the method and how this method can serve future research.

Abstract example 2

[background:] Literature confirms that students’ engagement in biology is a necessary predictor of their learning outcomes. However, how to do so is less certain. [aim:] Therefore, this study investigated whether students taught biology using Cooperative Mastery Learning (CML) had different perceptions of learning environment and engagement when compared to those taught using Conventional Teaching Methods (CTM). [methods:] A sample of 298 students (151 male and 147 female) in 7 intact biology classes was used. A modified What Is Happening In this Class (WIHIC) and Student Engagement Questionnaire (SEQ) were used to collect data. Data were mainly analyzed using the multivariate analysis of variance and simple correlation analysis. [results:] The findings indicated a statistically significant difference for all WIHIC and SEQ scales with students in CML scoring higher than students in CTM classes. Students’ perceptions of WIHIC scales were statistically significantly associated with SEQ scales. [contribution:] The findings provide important information about how students’ exposure to CML can help them be more engaged in biology classes. Hence, the CML is a practical instructional strategy with significant implications for teachers, biology syllabus designers, and curriculum planners.


  • The first two sentences of this abstract give background information by stressing the importance of the topic (student engagement) and identifying a gap in our understanding of this topic (how to stimulate student engagement).
  • Next, the author explains the aim of the paper (to compare the effect of two teaching methods).
  • This is followed by a brief discussion of the methods used (questionnaire and analysis type).
  • Key results are mentioned (statistically significant difference and association).
  • Finally, the author explains the contribution of this work in terms of new insights and implications for different groups.

Abstract example 3

[background:] Microbial production of bioplastics, derived from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), have provided a promising alternative towards plastic pollution. Compared to other extremophiles, halophilic archaea are considered as cell factories for PHB production by using renewable, inexpensive carbon sources, thus decreasing the fermentation cost. [aim and methods:] This study is aimed at screening 33 halophilic archaea isolated from three enrichment cultures from Tunisian hypersaline lake, Chott El Jerid, using starch as the sole carbon source by Nile Red/Sudan Black staining and further confirmed by PCR amplification of phaC and phaE polymerase genes. [results:] 14 isolates have been recognized as positive candidates for PHA production and detected during both seasons. The identification of these strains through 16S rRNA gene analyses showed their affiliation to Halorubrum, Natrinema, and Haloarcula genera. Among them, three PHB-producing strains, CEJ34-14, CEJ5-14, and CEJ48-10, related to Halorubrum chaoviator, Natrinema pallidum, and Haloarcula tradensis were found to be the best ones reaching values of 9.25, 7.11, and 1.42% of cell dry weight (CDW), respectively. [meaning:] Our findings highlighted that Halorubrum, Natrinema, and Haloarcula genera were promising candidates for PHB production using soluble starch as a carbon source under high salinity (250 g L-1 NaCl).


  • In the first two sentences, the author gives background information about the subject of this study (halophilic archaea) and its potential.
  • This is followed by an explanation of the aim (to screen 33 halophilic archaea).
  • The author then reports the results (the identification of three PHB-producing strains), and highlights what these results mean (potential of PHB production).


Abstract example 1: Zhenghuan Wang, "Measuring the Total-Factor Green Efficiency in China’s Industrial Sectors: A Parametric Approach", Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, vol. 2022, Article ID 5634702, 14 pages, 2022.

Abstract example 2: Emmanuel Bizimana, Dieudonné Mutangana, Adrian Mwesigye, "Students’ Perceptions of the Classroom Learning Environment and Engagement in Cooperative Mastery Learning-Based Biology Classroom Instruction", Education Research International, vol. 2022, Article ID 5793394, 14 pages, 2022.

Abstract example 3: Fatma Karray, Manel Ben Abdallah, Nidhal Baccar, Hatem Zaghden, Sami Sayadi, "Production of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) by Haloarcula, Halorubrum, and Natrinema Haloarchaeal Genera Using Starch as a Carbon Source", Archaea, vol. 2021, Article ID 8888712, 10 pages, 2021.

Structuring your Abstract

Useful phrases for your Abstract

FAQs about writing an Abstract